本文最后更新于:2020年11月7日 上午

String类探究

简介

  • final类,不可变,不可继承
  • 底层基于char数组实现(final),所以不可变

Tips

  • String s = new String(“aaa”)

    1. “aaa”会在常量池创建一个字符串,如果没有则会创建
    2. String s 会在栈区创建一个引用指针,指向后续new创建的对象
    3. new String(xxx) 此处调用字符串类型的复制方法,开辟堆内存,本质是是将常亮串的字符数组赋值给此处new的对象
    4. avatar
  • String.intern()

    此方法返回格式化的引用,即返回常量池中的引用,没有的话则会加入常量池

    源码分析


//final类,不可继承
public final class String
    implements java.io.Serializable, Comparable<String>, CharSequence {
   
    //核心字符数组,存储字符串中的值
    private final char value[];

    //哈希code码值
    private int hash; // Default to 0

    //序列化UUID
    private static final long serialVersionUID = -6849794470754667710L;

   
    private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
        new ObjectStreamField[0];

    //初始化方法,将空串的数组赋值给当前对象的字符串数组
    public String() {
        this.value = "".value;
    }

    //带参数的初始化方式,除了进行数组赋值,还进行哈希赋值
    public String(String original) {
        this.value = original.value;
        this.hash = original.hash;
    }

    //通过字符数组初始化
    public String(char value[]) {
        this.value = Arrays.copyOf(value, value.length);
    }

    //指定起始位置,和长度初始化
    public String(char value[], int offset, int count) {
        if (offset < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        }
        if (count <= 0) {
            if (count < 0) {
                throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(count);
            }
            if (offset <= value.length) {
                this.value = "".value;
                return;
            }
        }
        // Note: offset or count might be near -1>>>1.
        if (offset > value.length - count) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + count);
        }
        this.value = Arrays.copyOfRange(value, offset, offset+count);
    }

    //通过字符数组初始化,指定起始位置和长度
    public String(int[] codePoints, int offset, int count) {
        if (offset < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        }
        if (count <= 0) {
            if (count < 0) {
                throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(count);
            }
            if (offset <= codePoints.length) {
                this.value = "".value;
                return;
            }
        }
        // Note: offset or count might be near -1>>>1.
        if (offset > codePoints.length - count) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + count);
        }

        final int end = offset + count;

        //确定需要创建的数组长度,加上Unicde编码校验代码点("/u1234")
        int n = count;
        for (int i = offset; i < end; i++) {
            int c = codePoints[i];
            //判断是否是Unicode编码代码点
            if (Character.isBmpCodePoint(c))
                continue;
            //判断是否是有效数字校验点(这块也要进行加上)
            else if (Character.isValidCodePoint(c))
                n++;
            else throw new IllegalArgumentException(Integer.toString(c));
        }

        //不可变字符数组赋值
        final char[] v = new char[n];

        for (int i = offset, j = 0; i < end; i++, j++) {
            int c = codePoints[i];
            if (Character.isBmpCodePoint(c))
                //普通编码直接赋值
                v[j] = (char)c;
            else
                //其他类型,进行转换
                Character.toSurrogates(c, v, j++);
        }

        this.value = v;
    }


    /* Common private utility method used to bounds check the byte array
     * and requested offset & length values used by the String(byte[],..)
     * constructors.
     */
    private static void checkBounds(byte[] bytes, int offset, int length) {
        if (length < 0)
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(length);
        if (offset < 0)
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        if (offset > bytes.length - length)
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + length);
    }

    //通过byte数组进行初始化,并进行对应编码
    public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length, String charsetName)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        if (charsetName == null)
            throw new NullPointerException("charsetName");
        //边界检查
        checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        this.value = StringCoding.decode(charsetName, bytes, offset, length);
    }

    public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length, Charset charset) {
        if (charset == null)
            throw new NullPointerException("charset");
        checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        this.value =  StringCoding.decode(charset, bytes, offset, length);
    }

    public String(byte bytes[], String charsetName)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        this(bytes, 0, bytes.length, charsetName);
    }

    
    public String(byte bytes[], Charset charset) {
        this(bytes, 0, bytes.length, charset);
    }
    
    // 通过byte数组进行初始化
    public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length) {
        checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        this.value = StringCoding.decode(bytes, offset, length);
    }

    public String(byte bytes[]) {
        this(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
    }

    //通过StringBuffer进行初始化,此处的StringBuffer是线程安全的类
    public String(StringBuffer buffer) {
        //此处锁住buffer对象,保证初始化时候其他线程无法进行修改,可能是考虑到StringBuffer线程安全
        synchronized(buffer) {
            this.value = Arrays.copyOf(buffer.getValue(), buffer.length());
        }
    }

    //通过StringBuilder进行初始化
    public String(StringBuilder builder) {
        this.value = Arrays.copyOf(builder.getValue(), builder.length());
    }

    //内部初始化方法方法
    String(char[] value, boolean share) {
        // assert share : "unshared not supported";
        this.value = value;
    }

    //获取字符串长度,实际是内部数组长度,可包含确认编码校验点
    public int length() {
        return value.length;
    }

    //判断字符串是否为空,即判断内部字符数组是否为空
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return value.length == 0;
    }

    //获取字符串中某个位置的字符
    public char charAt(int index) {
        //边界校验
        if ((index < 0) || (index >= value.length)) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        }
        return value[index];
    }

    //获取对应下标的ASCII码的10进制值,取出Value数组值后进行转换
    public int codePointAt(int index) {
        if ((index < 0) || (index >= value.length)) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        }
        return Character.codePointAtImpl(value, index, value.length);
    }

    public int codePointBefore(int index) {
        int i = index - 1;
        if ((i < 0) || (i >= value.length)) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        }
        return Character.codePointBeforeImpl(value, index, 0);
    }

   
    public int codePointCount(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        if (beginIndex < 0 || endIndex > value.length || beginIndex > endIndex) {
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
        }
        return Character.codePointCountImpl(value, beginIndex, endIndex - beginIndex);
    }

   
    public int offsetByCodePoints(int index, int codePointOffset) {
        if (index < 0 || index > value.length) {
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
        }
        return Character.offsetByCodePointsImpl(value, 0, value.length,
                index, codePointOffset);
    }

   //字符串拷贝
    void getChars(char dst[], int dstBegin) {
        System.arraycopy(value, 0, dst, dstBegin, value.length);
    }

    
    public void getChars(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, char dst[], int dstBegin) {
        if (srcBegin < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcBegin);
        }
        if (srcEnd > value.length) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd);
        }
        if (srcBegin > srcEnd) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd - srcBegin);
        }
        System.arraycopy(value, srcBegin, dst, dstBegin, srcEnd - srcBegin);
    }

    //根据编码规则获取byte
    public byte[] getBytes(String charsetName)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        if (charsetName == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        return StringCoding.encode(charsetName, value, 0, value.length);
    }

    public byte[] getBytes(Charset charset) {
        if (charset == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        return StringCoding.encode(charset, value, 0, value.length);
    }

    public byte[] getBytes() {
        return StringCoding.encode(value, 0, value.length);
    }

    //比较相等,逐步比较两个字符串的字符数组
    public boolean equals(Object anObject) {
        if (this == anObject) {
            return true;
        }
        if (anObject instanceof String) {
            String anotherString = (String)anObject;
            int n = value.length;
            if (n == anotherString.value.length) {
                char v1[] = value;
                char v2[] = anotherString.value;
                int i = 0;
                while (n-- != 0) {
                    if (v1[i] != v2[i])
                        return false;
                    i++;
                }
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

   
    public boolean contentEquals(StringBuffer sb) {
        return contentEquals((CharSequence)sb);
    }

    private boolean nonSyncContentEquals(AbstractStringBuilder sb) {
        char v1[] = value;
        char v2[] = sb.getValue();
        int n = v1.length;
        if (n != sb.length()) {
            return false;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (v1[i] != v2[i]) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    //和CharSequence 比较是否相等
    public boolean contentEquals(CharSequence cs) {
        // Argument is a StringBuffer, StringBuilder
        if (cs instanceof AbstractStringBuilder) {
            if (cs instanceof StringBuffer) {
                synchronized(cs) {
                   return nonSyncContentEquals((AbstractStringBuilder)cs);
                }
            } else {
                return nonSyncContentEquals((AbstractStringBuilder)cs);
            }
        }
        // 字符串类型则直接比较
        if (cs instanceof String) {
            return equals(cs);
        }
        // 其余情况逐步比较
        char v1[] = value;
        int n = v1.length;
        if (n != cs.length()) {
            return false;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (v1[i] != cs.charAt(i)) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    //忽略大小写方式比较大小
    public boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String anotherString) {
        return (this == anotherString) ? true
                : (anotherString != null)
                && (anotherString.value.length == value.length)
                && regionMatches(true, 0, anotherString, 0, value.length);
    }

    public int compareTo(String anotherString) {
        int len1 = value.length;
        int len2 = anotherString.value.length;
        int lim = Math.min(len1, len2);
        char v1[] = value;
        char v2[] = anotherString.value;

        int k = 0;
        while (k < lim) {
            char c1 = v1[k];
            char c2 = v2[k];
            if (c1 != c2) {
                return c1 - c2;
            }
            k++;
        }
        return len1 - len2;
    }
    
    //比较大小
    public static final Comparator<String> CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER
                                         = new CaseInsensitiveComparator();
    private static class CaseInsensitiveComparator
            implements Comparator<String>, java.io.Serializable {
        // use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.2.2 for interoperability
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 8575799808933029326L;

        public int compare(String s1, String s2) {
            int n1 = s1.length();
            int n2 = s2.length();
            int min = Math.min(n1, n2);
            for (int i = 0; i < min; i++) {
                char c1 = s1.charAt(i);
                char c2 = s2.charAt(i);
                if (c1 != c2) {
                    c1 = Character.toUpperCase(c1);
                    c2 = Character.toUpperCase(c2);
                    if (c1 != c2) {
                        c1 = Character.toLowerCase(c1);
                        c2 = Character.toLowerCase(c2);
                        if (c1 != c2) {
                            // No overflow because of numeric promotion
                            return c1 - c2;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            return n1 - n2;
        }

        /** Replaces the de-serialized object. */
        private Object readResolve() { return CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER; }
    }

    public int compareToIgnoreCase(String str) {
        return CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER.compare(this, str);
    }

    //比较指定部分是否相等
    public boolean regionMatches(int toffset, String other, int ooffset,
            int len) {
        char ta[] = value;
        int to = toffset;
        char pa[] = other.value;
        int po = ooffset;
        // Note: toffset, ooffset, or len might be near -1>>>1.
        if ((ooffset < 0) || (toffset < 0)
                || (toffset > (long)value.length - len)
                || (ooffset > (long)other.value.length - len)) {
            return false;
        }
        while (len-- > 0) {
            if (ta[to++] != pa[po++]) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    public boolean regionMatches(boolean ignoreCase, int toffset,
            String other, int ooffset, int len) {
        char ta[] = value;
        int to = toffset;
        char pa[] = other.value;
        int po = ooffset;
        // Note: toffset, ooffset, or len might be near -1>>>1.
        if ((ooffset < 0) || (toffset < 0)
                || (toffset > (long)value.length - len)
                || (ooffset > (long)other.value.length - len)) {
            return false;
        }
        while (len-- > 0) {
            char c1 = ta[to++];
            char c2 = pa[po++];
            if (c1 == c2) {
                continue;
            }
            if (ignoreCase) {
                // If characters don't match but case may be ignored,
                // try converting both characters to uppercase.
                // If the results match, then the comparison scan should
                // continue.
                char u1 = Character.toUpperCase(c1);
                char u2 = Character.toUpperCase(c2);
                if (u1 == u2) {
                    continue;
                }
                // Unfortunately, conversion to uppercase does not work properly
                // for the Georgian alphabet, which has strange rules about case
                // conversion.  So we need to make one last check before
                // exiting.
                if (Character.toLowerCase(u1) == Character.toLowerCase(u2)) {
                    continue;
                }
            }
            return false;
        }
        return true;
    }

    //比较制定开始部分 是否以prefix开始
    public boolean startsWith(String prefix, int toffset) {
        char ta[] = value;
        int to = toffset;
        char pa[] = prefix.value;
        int po = 0;
        int pc = prefix.value.length;
        // Note: toffset might be near -1>>>1.
        if ((toffset < 0) || (toffset > value.length - pc)) {
            return false;
        }
        while (--pc >= 0) {
            if (ta[to++] != pa[po++]) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    //比较从0开始 是否以prefix开始
    public boolean startsWith(String prefix) {
        return startsWith(prefix, 0);
    }
    
    //比较是否以 给定后缀结尾
    public boolean endsWith(String suffix) {
        return startsWith(suffix, value.length - suffix.value.length);
    }

    //获取hashCode值,如果是字符串方式,则不会进行计算,其他方式初始化则会进行计算
    //s[0]*31^(n-1) + s[1]*31^(n-2) + ... + s[n-1]
    public int hashCode() {
        int h = hash;
        if (h == 0 && value.length > 0) {
            char val[] = value;

            for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
                h = 31 * h + val[i];
            }
            hash = h;
        }
        return h;
    }

  
    public int indexOf(int ch) {
        return indexOf(ch, 0);
    }

    //从指定下标开始 判断给定字符的位置
    public int indexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        final int max = value.length;
        if (fromIndex < 0) {
            fromIndex = 0;
        } else if (fromIndex >= max) {
            // Note: fromIndex might be near -1>>>1.
            return -1;
        }

        if (ch < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT) {
            // handle most cases here (ch is a BMP code point or a
            // negative value (invalid code point))
            final char[] value = this.value;
            for (int i = fromIndex; i < max; i++) {
                if (value[i] == ch) {
                    return i;
                }
            }
            return -1;
        } else {
            return indexOfSupplementary(ch, fromIndex);
        }
    }

    //处理补充字符的位置
    private int indexOfSupplementary(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        if (Character.isValidCodePoint(ch)) {
            final char[] value = this.value;
            final char hi = Character.highSurrogate(ch);
            final char lo = Character.lowSurrogate(ch);
            final int max = value.length - 1;
            for (int i = fromIndex; i < max; i++) {
                if (value[i] == hi && value[i + 1] == lo) {
                    return i;
                }
            }
        }
        return -1;
    }

    //字符最后的出现的位置
    public int lastIndexOf(int ch) {
        return lastIndexOf(ch, value.length - 1);
    }

    
    public int lastIndexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        if (ch < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT) {
            // handle most cases here (ch is a BMP code point or a
            // negative value (invalid code point))
            final char[] value = this.value;
            int i = Math.min(fromIndex, value.length - 1);
            for (; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (value[i] == ch) {
                    return i;
                }
            }
            return -1;
        } else {
            return lastIndexOfSupplementary(ch, fromIndex);
        }
    }

    private int lastIndexOfSupplementary(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        if (Character.isValidCodePoint(ch)) {
            final char[] value = this.value;
            char hi = Character.highSurrogate(ch);
            char lo = Character.lowSurrogate(ch);
            int i = Math.min(fromIndex, value.length - 2);
            for (; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (value[i] == hi && value[i + 1] == lo) {
                    return i;
                }
            }
        }
        return -1;
    }

    //判断字符串的起始位置
    public int indexOf(String str) {
        return indexOf(str, 0);
    }

    public int indexOf(String str, int fromIndex) {
        return indexOf(value, 0, value.length,
                str.value, 0, str.value.length, fromIndex);
    }

    static int indexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            String target, int fromIndex) {
        return indexOf(source, sourceOffset, sourceCount,
                       target.value, 0, target.value.length,
                       fromIndex);
    }

    static int indexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            char[] target, int targetOffset, int targetCount,
            int fromIndex) {
        if (fromIndex >= sourceCount) {
            return (targetCount == 0 ? sourceCount : -1);
        }
        if (fromIndex < 0) {
            fromIndex = 0;
        }
        if (targetCount == 0) {
            return fromIndex;
        }

        char first = target[targetOffset];
        int max = sourceOffset + (sourceCount - targetCount);

        for (int i = sourceOffset + fromIndex; i <= max; i++) {
            /* Look for first character. */
            if (source[i] != first) {
                while (++i <= max && source[i] != first);
            }

            /* Found first character, now look at the rest of v2 */
            if (i <= max) {
                int j = i + 1;
                int end = j + targetCount - 1;
                for (int k = targetOffset + 1; j < end && source[j]
                        == target[k]; j++, k++);

                if (j == end) {
                    /* Found whole string. */
                    return i - sourceOffset;
                }
            }
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public int lastIndexOf(String str) {
        return lastIndexOf(str, value.length);
    }

    public int lastIndexOf(String str, int fromIndex) {
        return lastIndexOf(value, 0, value.length,
                str.value, 0, str.value.length, fromIndex);
    }

    static int lastIndexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            String target, int fromIndex) {
        return lastIndexOf(source, sourceOffset, sourceCount,
                       target.value, 0, target.value.length,
                       fromIndex);
    }

    static int lastIndexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            char[] target, int targetOffset, int targetCount,
            int fromIndex) {
        /*
         * Check arguments; return immediately where possible. For
         * consistency, don't check for null str.
         */
        int rightIndex = sourceCount - targetCount;
        if (fromIndex < 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        if (fromIndex > rightIndex) {
            fromIndex = rightIndex;
        }
        /* Empty string always matches. */
        if (targetCount == 0) {
            return fromIndex;
        }

        int strLastIndex = targetOffset + targetCount - 1;
        char strLastChar = target[strLastIndex];
        int min = sourceOffset + targetCount - 1;
        int i = min + fromIndex;

    startSearchForLastChar:
        while (true) {
            while (i >= min && source[i] != strLastChar) {
                i--;
            }
            if (i < min) {
                return -1;
            }
            int j = i - 1;
            int start = j - (targetCount - 1);
            int k = strLastIndex - 1;

            while (j > start) {
                if (source[j--] != target[k--]) {
                    i--;
                    continue startSearchForLastChar;
                }
            }
            return start - sourceOffset + 1;
        }
    }

    //字符串分割
    public String substring(int beginIndex) {
        //边界值判断
        if (beginIndex < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
        }
        int subLen = value.length - beginIndex;
        if (subLen < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
        }
        //字符串截取
        return (beginIndex == 0) ? this : new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
    }

    public String substring(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        if (beginIndex < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
        }
        if (endIndex > value.length) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(endIndex);
        }
        int subLen = endIndex - beginIndex;
        if (subLen < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
        }
        return ((beginIndex == 0) && (endIndex == value.length)) ? this
                : new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
    }

    public CharSequence subSequence(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        return this.substring(beginIndex, endIndex);
    }

    //字符串拼接
    public String concat(String str) {
        int otherLen = str.length();
        if (otherLen == 0) {
            return this;
        }
        int len = value.length;
        //创建新的字符数组,并开辟为存储后续数组的空间
        char buf[] = Arrays.copyOf(value, len + otherLen);
        //str的字符数组放入buf
        str.getChars(buf, len);
        return new String(buf, true);
    }
    
    //替换其中某个字符
    public String replace(char oldChar, char newChar) {
        if (oldChar != newChar) {
            int len = value.length;
            int i = -1;
            char[] val = value; /* avoid getfield opcode */
            
            //找到旧字符位置
            while (++i < len) {
                if (val[i] == oldChar) {
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (i < len) {
                //创建新的字符数组并赋值
                char buf[] = new char[len];
                for (int j = 0; j < i; j++) {
                    buf[j] = val[j];
                }
                //从字符开始进行替换,此处是全部替换
                while (i < len) {
                    char c = val[i];
                    buf[i] = (c == oldChar) ? newChar : c;
                    i++;
                }
                return new String(buf, true);
            }
        }
        return this;
    }

    //判断字符串与表达式是否匹配
    public boolean matches(String regex) {
        return Pattern.matches(regex, this);
    }

    //判断是否包含,本质是调用indexOf方法
    public boolean contains(CharSequence s) {
        return indexOf(s.toString()) > -1;
    }

    //根据正则式匹配并替换,首次替换
    public String replaceFirst(String regex, String replacement) {
        return Pattern.compile(regex).matcher(this).replaceFirst(replacement);
    }

    //根据正则式匹配,并全部替换
    public String replaceAll(String regex, String replacement) {
        return Pattern.compile(regex).matcher(this).replaceAll(replacement);
    }

   
    public String replace(CharSequence target, CharSequence replacement) {
        return Pattern.compile(target.toString(), Pattern.LITERAL).matcher(
                this).replaceAll(Matcher.quoteReplacement(replacement.toString()));
    }

    //字符串拆分
    public String[] split(String regex, int limit) {
        /* fastpath if the regex is a
         (1)one-char String and this character is not one of the
            RegEx's meta characters ".$|()[{^?*+\\", or
         (2)two-char String and the first char is the backslash and
            the second is not the ascii digit or ascii letter.
         */
        char ch = 0;
        //正则式匹配
        if (((regex.value.length == 1 &&
             ".$|()[{^?*+\\".indexOf(ch = regex.charAt(0)) == -1) ||
             (regex.length() == 2 &&
              regex.charAt(0) == '\\' &&
              (((ch = regex.charAt(1))-'0')|('9'-ch)) < 0 &&
              ((ch-'a')|('z'-ch)) < 0 &&
              ((ch-'A')|('Z'-ch)) < 0)) &&
            (ch < Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE ||
             ch > Character.MAX_LOW_SURROGATE))
        {
            int off = 0;
            int next = 0;
            boolean limited = limit > 0;
            ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
            //进行字符串拆分
            while ((next = indexOf(ch, off)) != -1) {
                if (!limited || list.size() < limit - 1) {
                    //未到限制份数,继续进行拆分
                    list.add(substring(off, next));
                    off = next + 1;
                } else {    // last one
                    //assert (list.size() == limit - 1);
                    //到限制次数,此时为最后一个串
                    list.add(substring(off, value.length));
                    off = value.length;
                    break;
                }
            }
            //未匹配到正则式,不进行拆分
            if (off == 0)
                return new String[]{this};

            //未限制,此处增加最后一个串
            if (!limited || list.size() < limit)
                list.add(substring(off, value.length));

            // Construct result
            int resultSize = list.size();
            if (limit == 0) {
                //获取字符串数组长度
                while (resultSize > 0 && list.get(resultSize - 1).length() == 0) {
                    resultSize--;
                }
            }
            String[] result = new String[resultSize];
            return list.subList(0, resultSize).toArray(result);
        }
        //表达式长度为多个,或者特殊字符,走Pattern方法
        return Pattern.compile(regex).split(this, limit);
    }

    //根据正则式进行拆分,本质调用上一个方法,不进行分割串限制
    public String[] split(String regex) {
        return split(regex, 0);
    }

    //多个字符数组根据表达式合并
    public static String join(CharSequence delimiter, CharSequence... elements) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(delimiter);
        Objects.requireNonNull(elements);
        // Number of elements not likely worth Arrays.stream overhead.
        StringJoiner joiner = new StringJoiner(delimiter);
        for (CharSequence cs: elements) {
            joiner.add(cs);
        }
        return joiner.toString();
    }

    public static String join(CharSequence delimiter,
            Iterable<? extends CharSequence> elements) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(delimiter);
        Objects.requireNonNull(elements);
        StringJoiner joiner = new StringJoiner(delimiter);
        for (CharSequence cs: elements) {
            joiner.add(cs);
        }
        return joiner.toString();
    }

    //转换为小写
    public String toLowerCase(Locale locale) {
        if (locale == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException();
        }

        int firstUpper;
        final int len = value.length;

        /* Now check if there are any characters that need to be changed. */
        scan: {
            for (firstUpper = 0 ; firstUpper < len; ) {
                char c = value[firstUpper];
                if ((c >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE)
                        && (c <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
                    int supplChar = codePointAt(firstUpper);
                    if (supplChar != Character.toLowerCase(supplChar)) {
                        break scan;
                    }
                    firstUpper += Character.charCount(supplChar);
                } else {
                    if (c != Character.toLowerCase(c)) {
                        break scan;
                    }
                    firstUpper++;
                }
            }
            return this;
        }

        char[] result = new char[len];
        int resultOffset = 0;  /* result may grow, so i+resultOffset
                                * is the write location in result */

        /* Just copy the first few lowerCase characters. */
        System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, firstUpper);

        String lang = locale.getLanguage();
        boolean localeDependent =
                (lang == "tr" || lang == "az" || lang == "lt");
        char[] lowerCharArray;
        int lowerChar;
        int srcChar;
        int srcCount;
        for (int i = firstUpper; i < len; i += srcCount) {
            srcChar = (int)value[i];
            if ((char)srcChar >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE
                    && (char)srcChar <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
                srcChar = codePointAt(i);
                srcCount = Character.charCount(srcChar);
            } else {
                srcCount = 1;
            }
            if (localeDependent ||
                srcChar == '\u03A3' || // GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
                srcChar == '\u0130') { // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DOT ABOVE
                lowerChar = ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseEx(this, i, locale);
            } else {
                lowerChar = Character.toLowerCase(srcChar);
            }
            if ((lowerChar == Character.ERROR)
                    || (lowerChar >= Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)) {
                if (lowerChar == Character.ERROR) {
                    lowerCharArray =
                            ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseCharArray(this, i, locale);
                } else if (srcCount == 2) {
                    resultOffset += Character.toChars(lowerChar, result, i + resultOffset) - srcCount;
                    continue;
                } else {
                    lowerCharArray = Character.toChars(lowerChar);
                }

                /* Grow result if needed */
                int mapLen = lowerCharArray.length;
                if (mapLen > srcCount) {
                    char[] result2 = new char[result.length + mapLen - srcCount];
                    System.arraycopy(result, 0, result2, 0, i + resultOffset);
                    result = result2;
                }
                for (int x = 0; x < mapLen; ++x) {
                    result[i + resultOffset + x] = lowerCharArray[x];
                }
                resultOffset += (mapLen - srcCount);
            } else {
                result[i + resultOffset] = (char)lowerChar;
            }
        }
        return new String(result, 0, len + resultOffset);
    }

    public String toLowerCase() {
        return toLowerCase(Locale.getDefault());
    }

    //转换为大写
    public String toUpperCase(Locale locale) {
        if (locale == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException();
        }

        int firstLower;
        final int len = value.length;

        /* Now check if there are any characters that need to be changed. */
        scan: {
            for (firstLower = 0 ; firstLower < len; ) {
                int c = (int)value[firstLower];
                int srcCount;
                if ((c >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE)
                        && (c <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
                    c = codePointAt(firstLower);
                    srcCount = Character.charCount(c);
                } else {
                    srcCount = 1;
                }
                int upperCaseChar = Character.toUpperCaseEx(c);
                if ((upperCaseChar == Character.ERROR)
                        || (c != upperCaseChar)) {
                    break scan;
                }
                firstLower += srcCount;
            }
            return this;
        }

        /* result may grow, so i+resultOffset is the write location in result */
        int resultOffset = 0;
        char[] result = new char[len]; /* may grow */

        /* Just copy the first few upperCase characters. */
        System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, firstLower);

        String lang = locale.getLanguage();
        boolean localeDependent =
                (lang == "tr" || lang == "az" || lang == "lt");
        char[] upperCharArray;
        int upperChar;
        int srcChar;
        int srcCount;
        for (int i = firstLower; i < len; i += srcCount) {
            srcChar = (int)value[i];
            if ((char)srcChar >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE &&
                (char)srcChar <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
                srcChar = codePointAt(i);
                srcCount = Character.charCount(srcChar);
            } else {
                srcCount = 1;
            }
            if (localeDependent) {
                upperChar = ConditionalSpecialCasing.toUpperCaseEx(this, i, locale);
            } else {
                upperChar = Character.toUpperCaseEx(srcChar);
            }
            if ((upperChar == Character.ERROR)
                    || (upperChar >= Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)) {
                if (upperChar == Character.ERROR) {
                    if (localeDependent) {
                        upperCharArray =
                                ConditionalSpecialCasing.toUpperCaseCharArray(this, i, locale);
                    } else {
                        upperCharArray = Character.toUpperCaseCharArray(srcChar);
                    }
                } else if (srcCount == 2) {
                    resultOffset += Character.toChars(upperChar, result, i + resultOffset) - srcCount;
                    continue;
                } else {
                    upperCharArray = Character.toChars(upperChar);
                }

                /* Grow result if needed */
                int mapLen = upperCharArray.length;
                if (mapLen > srcCount) {
                    char[] result2 = new char[result.length + mapLen - srcCount];
                    System.arraycopy(result, 0, result2, 0, i + resultOffset);
                    result = result2;
                }
                for (int x = 0; x < mapLen; ++x) {
                    result[i + resultOffset + x] = upperCharArray[x];
                }
                resultOffset += (mapLen - srcCount);
            } else {
                result[i + resultOffset] = (char)upperChar;
            }
        }
        return new String(result, 0, len + resultOffset);
    }

    public String toUpperCase() {
        return toUpperCase(Locale.getDefault());
    }

    //去除两边空格,本质进行字符串的分割
    public String trim() {
        int len = value.length;
        int st = 0;
        char[] val = value;    /* avoid getfield opcode */

        while ((st < len) && (val[st] <= ' ')) {
            st++;
        }
        while ((st < len) && (val[len - 1] <= ' ')) {
            len--;
        }
        return ((st > 0) || (len < value.length)) ? substring(st, len) : this;
    }

    //转换为字符串,返回本身
    public String toString() {
        return this;
    }

    //转换为字符数组
    public char[] toCharArray() {
        // Cannot use Arrays.copyOf because of class initialization order issues
        char result[] = new char[value.length];
        System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, value.length);
        return result;
    }

    //字符串格式化
    public static String format(String format, Object... args) {
        return new Formatter().format(format, args).toString();
    }

   
    public static String format(Locale l, String format, Object... args) {
        return new Formatter(l).format(format, args).toString();
    }

    //转换为字符串
    public static String valueOf(Object obj) {
        return (obj == null) ? "null" : obj.toString();
    }

    public static String valueOf(char data[]) {
        return new String(data);
    }

    public static String valueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
        return new String(data, offset, count);
    }

    //字符串数据复制
    public static String copyValueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
        return new String(data, offset, count);
    }

   
    public static String copyValueOf(char data[]) {
        return new String(data);
    }

   
    public static String valueOf(boolean b) {
        return b ? "true" : "false";
    }

   
    public static String valueOf(char c) {
        char data[] = {c};
        return new String(data, true);
    }

   
    public static String valueOf(int i) {
        return Integer.toString(i);
    }

    public static String valueOf(long l) {
        return Long.toString(l);
    }

   
    public static String valueOf(float f) {
        return Float.toString(f);
    }

    
    public static String valueOf(double d) {
        return Double.toString(d);
    }

    //返回常量池的引用,如果没有则会加入
    public native String intern();
}

 目录